Dialysis is the process by which the wastes storing inside our body (urea, creatinine, potassium ) refined after the kidney stops functioning altogether. Dialysis is of two types: one is peritoneal dialysis for the stomach, and the other is hemodialysis or the process of purifying blood by a machine. Currently, Hemodialysis is more popular. Then again, in some of the European countries, peritoneal is mostly preferred.
IMPORTANCE OF DIALYSIS:
When the human kidneys fail to do 85% to 90% of their work, the only way to keep the patient alive through kidney transplant or dialysis. The main reasons for kidney failure are nephritis, diabetes, and high blood pressure. You can’t see the symptoms even after 30% to 70% kidney damage in the primary stage. When the loss is up to 80% to 85%, we can see the symptoms and then we can prepare the patient for dialysis.
When 80% to 85% of the kidney’s functioning has stopped, the patient starts to experience symptoms such as:
- Decreased appetite
- High blood pressure
- Anemia or becoming pale
- Itchiness without any reason
- Change in the amount of urine
TO-DO(s) FOR A PATIENT OF KIDNEY FAILURE:
After becoming certain that both of the kidneys are sufficiently damaged, through different types of diagnosis, the patient’s relatives should inform about the disease and what should they do in the future. They should prepare for dialysis and if possible, kidney transplant by a kidney donor who should be a close relative to the patient. For hemodialysis, a small operation, AV fistula, is necessary over the left or right wrist of the patient. If the patient is somehow physically unfit for hemodialysis, he/she should prepare for peritoneal dialysis or CAPD. During this time, the patient should intake drinking water and medicine only as the doctor has prescribed. Because if the patient doesn’t do as he/she is prescribed, he/she will not get the result as expected. Furthermore, the patient’s condition can get worse and could be endangered. If the patient hasn’t been given a vaccine for jaundice before, the doctors should make arrangements for that too.
NECESSITIES OF AV FISTULA:
AV fistula is a must before dialysis for any patient of kidney failure. The vein and artery which are on the wrist are cut and combined and therefore, called AV fistula. It is a prerequisite for hemodialysis, and it has no side effect. Because of this fistula, blood flows directly from artery to vein, and so, the thread can be seen for needling before hemodialysis. A patient is ready 3 to 4 weeks after doing the AV fistula. There is no alternative to AV fistula if the patient has to undergo hemodialysis for a long time.
If someone doesn’t do a fistula timely, the health condition might reach such a stage where if dialysis is necessary, the doctor takes the help of subclavian or femoral catheter for dialysis.
MERITS AND DEMERITS OF DIALYSIS:
Dialysis is the only way of keeping a patient of kidney failure alive. Its regularly helps the patient to lead a regular life. With the help of a machine, is done 2-3 times a week in a hospital. But, in developed countries, you can do it at home. Patients, who work in the day, do dialysis at night. The demerit of dialysis is that it is expensive. Most of the patients stop undergoing dialysis after a few months due to lack of money and die an untimely death. Patients, who also suffer dialysis irregularly, face difficulties such as, physical and mental weakness and anemia. During dialysis, some patients experience headache, nausea, heartache and body chills. If the patient lacks blood, it can be met by giving blood. Nowadays, erythropoietin injections are given as medication for anemia. Its a bit expensive, but has many benefits.
Parkview Hospital, Chittagong Dialysis unit, consist of 8 bed with modern dialysis equipment. This unit is designed to accommodate constant patient observation and timely intervention to prevent complications and provides individualized hemodialysis treatments for patients with renal failure. Short term dialysis is available for patients who visited from rural areas.